“The narratives of media culture offer patterns of proper and improper behaviour, moral messages, and ideological conditioning.”

What I picked up from this is that there is always a somewhat hidden message conveyed in whatever media we consume. Which leads to forming certain ways of thinking.

With media and culture playing such important roles in contemporary life, it is obvious that we must come to understand our cultural environment if we want to control our lives.

To me, this quote implies that we, must understand the norms and values of society in order get what we want in life. However, it is so very easy to fall into the trap of being exposed to the mass media so much that we forget the usual norms and values in society. As GTA is explained further on. To an extent I do agree, but I think it’s also important to understand that not everyone is that immersed into the mass society. For example, an old married couple may not be in touch with ‘the media’ as such. Despite that, they may see posters at the bus stand when they go out shopping, but they would not be affected by it as much as members of society being constantly exposed to media, mostly online. 

“We – and many of the theorists assembled in this volume – employ the term “culture” broadly to signify types of cultural artifacts (i.e. TV, CDs, newspapers, paintings, opera, journalism, cyberculture… so on), as well as a subject matter or domain of enquiry.”

For example, the children who brutally murdered Jamie Bulger were found to be playing violent video games that somewhat affected their actions. The hyperdermic syringe theory can play into this case easily. This is where the norms and ideas in the game are injected into the game player. I used the word injected because the game player is not aware that they are picking up certain values that they think are acceptable in the real world. The game player is passive and therefore heavily influenced by the happenings of the game. This is derived by the psychological impact GTA has on a brain, especially younger brains.  When in fact, it is not. Roaming around streets shooting people dead, robbing and beating people is acceptable in a virtual reality game such as GTA. However, in real life, this is unacceptable.

Another example is desensitisation, this is where

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels described the term ‘ideology’ in the 1840’s as reinforcing dominant ideas and representations in a given social order.

The market became more dominant during the capitalist era, which helped reinforce the power or the bourgeoisie, better known as the ‘ruling class’. Furthermore, feminists and multiculturalists created ideologies in order to produce social domination over subordinate groups below them, this directly enforces the legitimate rule by keeping the ruling class in power, alongside reinforcing the existing inequalities that are present.